The modern world is full of
buildings, homes, offices, shops, factories, huge industrial complexes all
located from smallest of villages to mega cities. These constructions have a
number of elements that make the whole construction functional and beautiful.
There was a time in history when ceramics was used largely as a embellishment
on these constructions. From China
in the east to the Greek cities on the west, ceramics was used in construction
to adorn walls outer claddings. The production was very low and rare and only
the rich and people with abundant means used ceramics in construction. Pottery
and clay were of course used by all classes, but Ceramics in glazed forms were
used only by an elite few all over the world.
It was also used in important
public constructions like Mosques, temples, and other buildings of public use
and important to the country and/or the kingdom. The domes, walls exteriors etc
were decorated with handmade ceramic add-ons to make the buildings more
attractive and look richer.
IN the early 1900s, Ceramics
started being used in constructions. The richer countries, largely British and
French used Ceramic Tiles as well as sanitary ware in their washing spaces and
bathrooms. Some tiles were also used in rooms and exteriors. This was largely
due to increase in production of ceramic goods.
This was actually the start of
usage of Ceramics in interiors and exteriors as an important (but not
necessary) element of any constructions. Middle class homes had but, limited
usage of ceramic tiles and sanitary ware.
However, this phase was important
as it actually educated the engineers as well as health awareness people about
the benefits of ceramics in construction. Ceramics did not only provide beauty,
but also sanitation, easy maintenance, long lasting utility and ease of day to
day use. These benefits started making their presence felt in every country
across the world.
Ceramics actually started making
their way in every home in well sustained countries, in this phase of the
history. Interior designers, Architects as well as engineers started
recommending use of ceramics. More colleges, better education, faster communication,
flow of technology across countries, people meeting each other and excellent
dispersion of knowledge led to growth of many new products all over the world.
Ceramic and its usage to found great liking and acceptance in the phase.
Today, Ceramics, A necessity
In today’s world, it is difficult
to imagine a household or a commercial construction without ceramic goods
installed. Every household, small or big has some sort of ceramic items
Almost all offices and commercial
buildings have sanitary ware and ceramic tiles installed at one place or the
The Design Challenge for Designers
The homes and offices are now a
depiction of style statement and interior as well as exterior design
specialists are put to challenge every time they take up a project. They have
to deliver extra ordinary, functional as well as unique designs that, when
installed appear exclusive as well as attractive.
The spending in home decoration
and commercial construction have increased to the point where every designer
has to think out of the box, innovate, create and bring to life magnificent
constructions every time.
To make their life easy and
smoother, the ceramic industry presents a whole lot of products with plethora
of choices. These choices are easily available and extremely functional to
install as well as last long.
Ceramic goods present a very
strong decoration advantage to the interior designers as well as architects for
exterior cladding. The variety of shapes sizes and colors virtually present a
limitless scope for designers to run their imagination wild. The ceramic
Manufacturers across the world and largely from India have together developed and
supplied the market with products that are sure to match any look and
appearance wildly imagined by the design specialists.
Ceramic Goods in Designing of Buildings
Wall tiles are largely used as
wall cladding. Initially used in washing spaces only, they now find place in
any and all rooms. They are available in smart looks with varying colors,
conceptualised to make the walls look designer walls. With inherent advantage
of easy maintenance and long lasting promise, the wall tiles are but the most
admired wall decoration element.
They tiles are available in a
number of sizes. From Small 6 x 6 inches which are right for small enclosures
like public wash rooms and small office spaces, to 24 x 36 inches that are
installed in huge Hotel lobbies and the homes of the Rich and Famous, they can
cater to any need.
Adding to this is the punching
effects that give Three Dimensional feel to the tiles. You can have waves, or
grids and checkers, or stripes and bars on the surface or rough stone like
finish to just enhance the touch and feel of the tile surface.
With the advent of Digital Printing
Technology, the wall tiles are have broken all barriers of colors and designs.
From natural stones to man made fibres to leaves to lawns to …..Anything, the
Digital Printing Technology provides perfect appearance of the tiles.
The best offer of the wall tiles
is, that they are not just perfect, but much better replacement of the Natural
stones. They look exactly like natural stone, but can promise higher shine in
case of glossy finish, lower shine in satin and no shine in case of matt
finish. While natural stones will have their own looks and feels, the wall
tiles can be modified to look the way the customer likes it. They provide much
needs protection to the natural stones as they have already been accepted as
substitutes for natural stones.
The floor tiles have all the
advantages of wall tile, but are tougher and have a very hard surface. They
have great abrasion resistance. They too are available in all kinds of looks
and feels like the wall tiles. In fact it is possible to find good matching
sets that make the whole rooms appear as carved out of a single stone.
It is also possible to machine
some tiles and clad them with other material to give a unique flooring pattern.
Ideal for exteriors as well as interiors, the floor tiles promise to make the
walk ways of any construction amazing and functional.
Sanitary-ware has come of age and
is a home decorators’ delight. Every home has a wash room. It may be big and
regal. It can be small, compact and stylish. From big homes on the country side
to a single apartment condo in a bustling city to a seven star hotel to a
commercial complex, Sanitary ware finds application every where.
It is not regarded as just utility
attachment for sanitation, but a functional element of any construction that
should also add style. Themed homes and constructions have unique needs. So do
contemporary constructions. While the tiles garnish the walls and floors of any
such building, sanitary ware add to the beauty of real objects in wash rooms
and stylish wash basins in dinette and dining area.
They are now available in great
colors and shapes. From very large sizes and regal appearances to small and
cosy set ups, sanitary ware has more than 150 shapes bundles along with Vitrosa
and hand painted finishes to further enlighten the look of the article.
While Ceramic serves walls and
floors, roofs was the initial product under the pottery sector that had
tremendous prominence. Roof tiles though used very less nowadays, propose very
unique as well as nostalgic touch to the constructions. They are largely used
in village themed homes, hotels and restaurants. Very rarely used in commercial
buildings, they have limited use, but do look extremely attractive and bear a
great utility in terms of providing coolness with style.
November 2016 will go down in History of India as a day when it was shocked,
awed, surprised and amazed at what the government did. At precisely 8:30 PM,
the respected Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi announced Demonetization of Rs.
500 and Rs. 1000 notes. This would lead to a total overhaul of the economy in
will be short term and long term implications of national proportions, we will
focus more on its effects on the ceramic Industry.
Ceramic Industry and Cash
(or rather forever) the industry has been dealing largely in cash. From
salaries to Purchase payments to transport to petty expenditures, cash is the
norm of payments, BIG and small.
It can be
safely mentioned here that if money is actually the blood of body Indian
ceramic eco system, cash would constitute of red blood cells. It wouldn’t be
right or even possible to mention as to how much of this was legal and how much
was not in alignment with Tax Systems. But, the industry worked on CASH.
to be an industry with a massive turnover and lot of which is in cash, the
total figure would be humungous.
In the past
decade, many company’s managements have worked hard to avoid cash transaction
and make their books clean, there was a lot to be desired. With the last decade
also witnessed tremendous sprouting of new units in Morbi, Thangadh and
Himmatnagar regions, it will be fair to say a lot of dealing was done in cash
on a day to day basis.
Short Term Impact: Cash Crunch
would teach us that lack of Red blood cells would lead to a person becoming
sick. If this lack is around 80%, the person would surely die or go into a
Coma. For ceramic industry, death is not on, but Coma is. Yes the Industry will
enter a state of Coma for some weeks if not months.
Cash becoming worthless and lot of time lag in new currency being replaced,
there will be a heavy cash crunch situation in the nation. With a lot of
illegal money being largely wiped out, it will be near impossible to replace
that cash. Adding to this will be the limits of withdrawal of cash that will
further put pressure on businesses.
managed units will bounce back faster, but as the whole eco system will be
effected, it will be difficult for the most prudent to get back on track.
the industry is already crippled by severe liquidity crunch. As per Time OF India Report Nov 24, 2016, 05.56 AM IST, this is what the President of Morbi Dhuva glazed tiles association, Mr
Nilesh Jetpariya had to say, "We
surveyed around 470 manufacturing units operating in the cluster and sought
their feedback on the impact of liquidity crisis on their production. Sixty
percent of them said they had already closed their units down and 20% would
stop production in the next few days,"
700 small and big manufacturing units of ceramic and related products, 500 are
expected to shut down by 30th November, and this is a large number.
Short Term Impact: Workers’
most of whom come from Bihar and UP are largely illiterate. Most of them do not
have bank accounts. The remaining do not know how to operate them wisely. With
their habit being of receiving cash only, they will face an immediate
challenge. With no cash on hand, non of the companies will be able to pay
salaries. While some of them will make arrangements to open bank accounts
faster and educate their labors, it would be near impossible task to support
all. As explained by Nilesh, "Production
unit owners do not have cash to pay their laborers who are mainly from Uttar
Pradesh and Bihar. Many of these workers do not have bank accounts. With caps
on withdrawal, we are unable to draw required cash from the banks,"
cluster alone employs around 1 lac employees directly and atleast 50 thousand
indirectly, all of them will be adversely affected on the short run. Ass to
that the clusters of Thangadh and Himmatnagar, we can suppose a total of 3 lac
workers will feel the pinch instantly.
Short Term Impact: Transportation
major hurdle will be transportation. More than 400 trucks of various sizes
supply material and carry out nationwide delivery of products. All of these
rely heavily on cash payments. With severe cash crunch, many of them have
already stopped the wheels rolling. Many of these transport vehicles travel as
far as Nepal, Meghalaya, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Kashmir. Some of them are on
road for more than 15-20 days. It is nearly impossible for them to travel all
the way without cash.
If the transportation
stops, even the best managed companies cannot dispatch or receive raw material,
leading to stop in production.
Short Term: Domino Effect
Like in all
industries and product based sectors, domino effect will be seen in every
element of the eco system. When a single element shuts down it takes slows down
its suppliers as well as customers, leading to the total chain coming down.
This phenomenon was expected to be very fast and just 20 days in to demonetization,
it has already had its effects.
though lasts for about 45 days, it will take at least 60 days to get back on
track. There will still be laggards with weaker management capabilities who
would find it tough to get into normal production after 120 days.
The New India….Emerging Giant….
India is one of the
fastest growing economies of the world. The Industrial Super revolution in on
The rate at which new industries, residences and offices are opening are
phenomenal. The real strength of India, Rural parts of the country
are getting a total overhaul in living standards. From traveling to housing to
fashion, all is changing, at a fast rate. Government is promoting health and
sanitation on a large scale.
Sanitary ware Demand….Sky rocketing…
All the above
factors point at a very important direction as regards Sanitary ware demand. It
is sky rocketing. In India,
Sanitary ware manufacturing is still highly labor intensive, because labor is
far economical as a factor of input compared to Technology. Further, Labor can
be reduced if demand shrinks. The same is not true of technology that is
management is an issue most entrepreneurs would like to do away with. Specially
when the supply of labor is decreasing. The rates as well as behaviors of labor
pose a very uncomfortable situation. This challenge acts as a barrier for new
entrants in the industry. So, the new capacities that come is are with direct
investment of old players or new entrant with assistance or direct partnership
of old player in the Industry.
World’s Most economical Sanitary ware….
India has two
regions where the Sanitary ware manufacturing clusters exist. The Morbi region
and the Thangadh region. While Morbi is known for its superlative growth in a
multiple industries, though the majority still remains ceramics, Thangadh is
renowned for its price of goods. Througout the world if you talk of price
effective sanitary ware, the common answers will all lead to this word called
Thangadh, the city of good affordable sanitary ware.
Thangadh is a
very small town located in Gujarat. It is a
major source of Than Plasa clay, the main ingredient for manufacture of high
quality sanitary ware and ceramics. The Travel Pundits regard it as the town of
the Tarnetar Mela, very popularly recognized in the whole of western world. An
Event that brings history of the region to life.
It once was
ranked third in Per Capita Income of India, an achievement that has made
people of the town proud. It is felt that it is still a very good labor
generator and the payouts to the people are generous as well.
Thangadh is the
Economy Capital for Sanitary ware in the world. It has domestic as well as
Ceramics share a long history. In fact this was a place where potters first
made common clay utensils. As the fables go,
Thangadh was a junction in those days. An entrepreneur passing by
stopped to have tea and saw the utensils. He inquired for the manufacturer and
found that there was something different about this ceramic utensils. He took
some clay to Mumbai (Then Bombay) for testing and found that this was the ideal
clay for Ceramics.
The Nature had
blessed Thangadh with Rich Land of Main Raw-Material for Ceramic – Fire Clay,
which was main cause of the development of Ceramic Industries at Thangadh
situated in Surendranagar, District Gujarat State
After all the
research, the entrepreneur started pouring investment in the area to start
factories. This is believed to be the start of ceramics in the Thangadh. Industrial development is believed to have started in 1913. The pioneer in
Ceramic at Thangadh was Shri Sorabji Dalal The initial growth was very slow and
was totally controlled by a few big investors who put up factories. In the
Eighties, more factories started coming up and export to various countries
started. Exports were largely to Middle east but some part of Europe
got a taste of the Thangadh sanitary ware.
The Maturity of Ceramics In Thangadh
saw a very huge change in things, which actualized in later part of the 90s.
Thangadh Ceramic Industry wasn’t far behind the impending growth opportunities.
However, the methods were age old. Technology was being timed out and machinery
was largely non existent. The kilns used were down draft or shuttle type which
gave limited production. Transportation inbound as well as outbound were very
slow. IN short, the state of the affair was not good enough for the industry.
necessity is the mother of inventions, the new breed of entrepreneurs with the
help of traders from around the world started changing things and patterns of
working. The mechanization was introduced in certain areas. Movement of
material systems were upgraded. Kilns started being replaced to Tunnels which
could give better throughputs. Battery casting
was also introduced in some units. Colors and glaze qualities improved.
Laboratory set ups were promoted in some units that dealt in international
markets. All this change saw the markets for the products improving. The
industry and the industrialists had matured to take on the big leap in the next
Entrepreneurs of Thangadh has put the city on the world map of ceramics. It is
probably the smallest cluster of closely placed ceramics industries in a very
small area. In the past year itself there are more than 12 new units
established. The capacities in the earlier years was around 600 in limited
units. Others had even smaller capacities of pieces per day. Today the same is
believed to stand at 1000 per unit. With more units as well as more capacities,
the region rolls out more products than any other cluster including Morbi.
There were only
white and plain colors earlier. Today there are more than 20 colors to design
with. There were very limited range and large production of Orissa Pans was
seen. Today, there is a wide variety that boasts of more than 180 shapes. The
surface finish was plain earlier. Today, Vitrosa and Hand painting have taken
over. Not to mention stickers and other surface treatments to the sanitary
tradition of being price effective, Thangadh now offers a stylish and exquisite
sanitary ware. If you are looking for sanitary ware that is affordable yet
luxutious, Thangadh is the place to go.
to total India.
There is not a nook of the country where there is Sanitation but there is no
Piece of Thangadh Sanitary ware. In fact most of the government sanitation
drives have been successful due to the price advantage of Thangadh products.
companies are now also into building of brands as they have the quality that
can be very successful in Metros and cosmos of India. The companies are going in
for better advertising, developing brands rather than stick to the HINDUSTAN
range and the smart ones are really using technology as well a forward
marketing to build customer base for their brands all across India.
Due to capacity
expansion all over, there are two major concerns of business houses. First, labor
rates are rising and availability is diminishing by the day. There are labor
migrating from different areas of India, but the situation is getting
challenging and putting pressure on the costs as well. The other challenge
though expected to be temporary is the impending condition of over supply.
Again due to capacity expansions taking place in a very short period of time,
the demons of over supply are haunting industry players, largely new ones. The
costs of inputs such as gas and raw material are going up too, inviting price
future of the industry on the long run looks bright due to the enhancements of
quality and design of the product. Add to that the new second generation coming
into industry with fresh ideas and broader vision, there is only one direction
the Thangadh Sanitary ware is going, upwards.
has become one magazine that is read all over India in ceramic circles. It has
become the accepted magazine that brings good articleship with news and views.
The Magazine now needs a fresher look. This is where we will need our readers
to get involved. Build Avenue is your magazine. Make it great.
You can send us
your views, and ideas to the magazine’s office, online or in print to help us
make it better. Your articles would be a bonus. However, if you can send us
just your requests for some special subjects, we will be glad to write about
Further, as the
editor of the publication, we are into moving into international markets. We
would like to have your photos with some text for your visits to some industrial
units in some other countries like Spain,
China, Italy or
others. This would really help you get an excusive space in our magazine and
help us bring World Class factories live in the magazine.
In this issue
we have our international outlook on Thailand. Thailand is a
country small in size, but big on opportunity. Its Ceramic Growth is on a
positive. Probably one of the first countries we are dealing with in the far
eastern markets. We are sure that we will bring about many articles for the far
eastern markets which threaten to be our competition in the global arena.
We further look
at Thangadh, again. The area is into a major uplift as far as capacity
enhancement is concerned. It is also the major supplier of ceramics, largely,
Sanitary ware. Starting from history, we have covered topics till what Thagadh
business houses are experiencing now. We are sure this will be a good insight
into the area.
Please do get
involved in the growth of your magazine, the Build Avenue.
While the world population grows, so does the need for good housing.
With increase in literacy and awareness of sanitation, every country is
witnessing a surge in the need for ceramic goods. Moreover, with every country becoming
more self reliant, better lifestyles too are demanded. Thailand, is not far behind in the
phenomenon. While a, lot of industries are doing well in Thailand, so is
the Ceramic Industry. So here is a look at the Thai Ceramic Scenario.
The archaeological survey of Thailand
reveals that Thailand had a strong ceramic culture since years. However, the
exact periods are unknown. Further, the articles found at various sites can be
classified into two major categories.
Ones that were manufactured in Thailand had a clear touch and
appearance of the Thai Artisan. As the communities in Thailand
developed in science and art, the ceramics of those times reflect this
progress. It is also evident that Thailand’s rich resources in clay
were discovered well before these times and slowly, the ceramic potter’s tools
and products came into the Thai households. Most of these products were common
In the same period, there was imported ceramic ware in use as well. Thailand being
a land of trade in those times, it is no surprise that there were other
countries whose ceramic goods made it to Thai house holds as well.
Raw Material :
A major Advantage
As we know, the ceramic industry
is the industry of good quality clay. If there is clay there is industry.
has huge deposits of quality clay largely in Lampong province of the country.
There are other areas too that have good clay deposits.
The nearness to the major raw material makes for a great strategic
advantage for the industry. This is also a major reason why a number of
domestic as well as foreign players have entered into manufacture and supply of
ceramic goods in Thailand.
Further, Thai Labor is quiet cheap as well. Another big reason for the
Ceramic Products being cheaper and more affordable in the international market.
Ceramics being a highly labor intensive line, this factor of production helps
the cause of small industries. In fact, Lampong
Province prides itself to provide one
of the largest employments in the whole of Thailand. The province virtually
survives on ceramic factories that are around 200+ in the province and
Statistics: 2010 Survey
In the year 2010, Ceramic
Center reported some
findings of the ceramic industry that are worth looking at. The Ceramic
Industry in Thailand
has attracted lot of foreign funds inflow which is one of the major catalysts
of the industry. According to the report, approximately 800 million USD inflow
was witnessed. The classification of product wise investments can be summarized
The floor tiles, wall tiles and mosaics had 12 factories that focused on
high technology and had a 60% exports of the total production.
Sanitary ware sub sector had 8 factories, again with the similar 60%
exports to international markets.
The insulators sub sector’s 90% of the production was consumed in
domestic market, which again is great, owing to the growth in the Thai economy,
a clear indication of investments in infrastructure. The 10 factories in
insulators are largely located in Bangkok, Nakom
Pratom and in central Thailand
and the Rayong province
of Eastern Thailand.
Smaller Industries in decoratives ceramics as well as dinner ware are
largely located in Lampong, Lamhun and Chianmai. The dinner ware had
approximately 68 factories of smaller size, while decoratives are manufactured
in 123 small units. All these are labor intensive and provide good amount of
employment in the region. 80% of the productions of these sub sectors are
Thailand also has a
number of high technology roof tiles manufacturers. The best part is their Roof
tiles manufacturing is now focusing on Green Manufacturing, and yet it has an
affordable pricing that has domestic as well as International markets.
As can be seen from the above, the Ceramic Industry of Thailand has a
very large chunk of Exports.
Lampang : The Epicenter
of Thai Ceramics
Lampang is one of the most important ceramic regions of all producers.
It is located at the north of Thailand.
Reasons or it being a successful region for ceramics are:
- It is the main source of
white clay in Thailand,
with 93% of all white clay coming from Lampang. This white clay is highly
resistant to heat thus producing quality products.
- The labour is cheaper in the province
and surrounding areas.
- Lampang is has a major
locational advantage. It is the bypass to many nearby provinces and has
all forms of transportation.
The origin of
Ceramics in Lampang was when a villager from Jae-Hom district found Whetstone
made from Kaolinite. After that there were some Chinese making progresses as
they had the financial might to do it.
From 1947, when
partially organized factories started coming un in Lampang region, through
1960s and 1980s the economic situation as well as organizing of industry was
faster. Government started taking interest in the growth of the sector in the
region. There was better education and training. Stronger research and Quality
Control Support. Seminars and workshops on technology and commercial education
to upgrade trade commerce and exports.
Today, the ceramic factories in Lampang range from small to large scale.
There are about 30 factories for medium to large scale numbering from 100-600
in labor force per factory. There are about 120 factories for small scale with
10-80 in labor force per factory. This generates a cash flow into the province
of at least 2,000 million baht per year.
Some distinguishing features Of Lampang ceramics are:
- Conservative style, i.e. :
using the jigger method of production and dragon kilns, which still use
wood as an energy source; they produce 5" - 7" local bowls along
with electric insulators and Art Ceramics of which only 7-8 factories
remain in operation today.
- LPG kiln: to compete with
products from abroad, the LPG kiln is used to produce gift sets, home
decoration sets, dinnerware, ceramic fences, and handmade products.
- High technology products:
using the tunnel kiln, Lampang was able to expand production capacity to
serve the market demand of Europe and America. These products are
tableware, large flower pots, and vases.
Though Lampang has been producing white clay ceramics for only 50 years,
it is one of the most important exports of Thailand and will continue to
enhance income and occupational growth of the local people in the future.
The Future for
Thailand Ceramics Sector is expected to be good in the coming years. The labor
costs are going high so are the raw material prices. These may be a matter of
concern, but looking at the pricing of all ceramic products going up in the
past few years, there is no fear that the industry will loose its shine in the
However, the major players will have to look out for
trends in designs and technologies. These factors will decide their actual
position 10 years from now. As the world is changing fast and Asia is pretty
much becoming the manufacturing continent of the world, there will be sharp
competition from other countries in Asia. The
development too will be huge in Asia, so it is imperative that there be consistent
quality and design up gradation in Ceramics in Thailand.
America or geographically known as USA, is even in the
worst economic times, remained a Financial Superpower. It has the power and the
courage to purchase from the world. It is also regarded as the biggest importer
of goods. Presenting the total scenario of Ceramic Tiles of USA in one issue
which is nearly impossible. However, we will give you some glimpses of the
we largely regard ceramic or mosaic tiles for flooring. However, in the USA,
This is a sub sector of floor coverings. IN the USA, most buildings in the past had
wooden floorings or rugs put on wooden floorings. People largely avoided HARD
FLOORs as they say. This can be due to frosty conditions in mostly during the
year or just a simple habit. The tiles thus entered the US mainstream
usage very late.
Looking from the information from the year 2001, the year
that had close to 2.00 bill sq. ft. of consumption, there was a steady growth
in consumption. This growth can be attributed to the growth in the construction
industry of the USA.
However, since the housing bubble burst in 2007, the
volumes came down sharply. The industry as we know is largely dependent on
housing. As 2009 saw a small rise, the same was seen in 2010 and 2011 as rise
The best part is that import penetration is falling since
last 6-7 years rapidly. This is a bright sign for the upcoming ceramic tiles
manufacturers as they are taking the lead in the markets.
The leading Countries exporting to USA are Mexico, China
followed by Italy, Brazil and Spain. With India becoming a real strong competitor
in the last few years. We are sure Indian Ceramic tiles will find a way to the
USA markets soon.
There are a number of Ceramic Tiles manufacturers in the
USA. They largely supply to the American Market and a part of the production is
In the last few years, the Manufacturers are strongly
taking lead over the importers and most of the consumption in the times to come
will be met by the domestic shipments only. This is a great positive sign for
America, but a huge challenge for the exporters, largely Mexico and China.
Many of the same issues that have led to the decline in
tile consumption over the last five years continue to negatively affect the
market, such as:
commercial construction and residential housing markets, despite historically-low
unemployment and low housing prices, which lead to less purchasing power for
low new home sales
India is growing as
one of the best manufacturers of Ceramic Tiles. The country will be at par with
Spain and Italy in the future. Our biggest strength in the American markets
will be our pricing.
The biggest challenge though will be the quality of our
products in the American Extreme conditions. From the Cold and Frigid North and
East coast, to the High temperate deserts of USA, our tiles should be able to
withstand the fluctuating weather.
Secondly, the Indian manufacturers will have to
stringently follow the ASTM standards which are accepted in the USA. In the
USA, the DIY or Do It Yourself is very popular. The Indians will also have to
work out products offerings with a DIY option.
Further, Americans are largely Brand conscious Buyers, so
the Manufacturers in India will have to have a heavy branding exercise or tie
up with an existing Interior design brand which needs a hard flooring option,
namely quality ceramic tiles.
All this form a good opportunity for Indian exporters if
thought out strategically.
We are at the epicenter of the largest tile production
area in India. In fact, we are the Epicenter. Most of the tiles sold in India
are largely manufactured and supplied from Morbi. However, BA has found many
traders, retailers, sale persons and (surprisingly!)
manufacturers who are not always very much aware of the variety of tiles and
We have therefore decided to highlight the Ceramic Tiles
and their variants in a long brief article. Surprised? How contradicting? An
Oxymoron so to say. LONG BRIEF. We know it is puzzling to some and largely
funny to most but yes this series will have articles with LONG BREIFS, because,
we may have to write a hand book to cover everything if we go into the details,
so whatever we will summarize here will be very brief. But as Ceramic tiles
sector has many variants, the article or the series thereof will be quiet long
spanning a number of issues.
To give you an overview of the total series, we will be
3. Polished Porcelain tiles
4. Soluble Salts Technology
6. Salt and Pepper Technology
With the preceding list, you will probably agree to our
linguistic adaptation of LONG BRIEF presentation.
is a complex subject. Let's cut down the complexity and make it simple. There
are two major types of tiles, quarry tile: that is a tile that is made by
extrusion from natural clay or shale and a tile that is made by the pressed
dust method. The pressed category includes wall tiles, mosaic tiles, and floor
tiles. All types of tiles can be glazed or fired as unglazed. Glaze is a
ceramic surfacing material that is used to provide a certain appearance. Let me
restate this point: any ceramic tile type may be glazed or unglazed. This
includes porcelain tiles.
It may be intriguing
to some that how can dust be so strong. When wet dust is pressed under high
pressure, it retains some moisture which helps the body stay together. As all
particles are extremely small and uniform, they compact into a strong body. The
moisture in the tile after pressing is 5%. The tile is then dried and will
still retain moisture of about 2%. Once it is baked in the oven or kiln, its
moisture evaporates and forms a strong body. If the glazing is desired, it
should be applied after drying.
tiles are differentiated on the basis of their water absorption property. Water
absorption of tile is decided by the selection of raw material used for the
body of the tiles and the manufacturing process employed to produce it. In
today’s world a number of technologies are available for manufacture of tiles
and hence there are a number of types of tiles available.
It must be
noted that it is the body that absorbs the water and not the glazed surface. This
water absorption determines the classification of tile.
A Wall tile
has about 7-20% water absorption. That may be news to some, but it is merely a
fact for the technical experts. This is also the reason why it cannot be used at
a number of places. The water goes into
the body when it rains, dews, from pools and fountains, and even atmospheric
condensation. All these lead to the tile becoming heavy and may even crack due
to temperature variations and the water effect in these variations.
Wall tile is
made for a purpose, sticking on a wall, although in India, people have found
alternative uses for the same, including on floors, where the foot traffic is
very low. A wall tile should be beautiful as it is largely used for Decorative purposes.
Moreover the size must be close to uniform as there is usually a small space
between each tile (called a grout joint).
The relatively soft body of wall tile makes it easy to cut to fit (including
round holes for plumbing fixtures) and helps the tile to stick to the wall
It is normally
argued by laymen that GLAZING is water proof and hence the tiles are safer even
in water logged areas. Yes it is true that glazing is water proof, but water
seeps into the tiles body through GROUTS at the JOINTS. It is worth noting that
the water absorption is in the body and not the glaze. With advancement of
technology, high quality water proofing material can be used to protect the
body of the tiles.
tiles as the name says are manufactured for flooring. The first generation of
Ceramic floor tiles has lower water absorption. This is largely due to better
compaction and very low porosity. Normally porosity and water absorption are
directly related. Lower the porosity, lower the water absorption. The water
absorption of ceramic floor tiles is 5-6%.
As these tiles
are more compact, they tend to be heavier than wall tiles. So, they cannot be
used on walls. Because of low porosity, the cement and mortar cannot bind with
the body of the tile. It is easy to stick the wall tiles which have higher
porosity, on walls, but not these floor tiles.
They can be
glazed and in the Indian context they are actually glazed. This enables the
tiles to be more beautiful and extremely aesthetic. The glazing also prevents
water absorption. However, at the joints, water proofing needs to be done.
flexibility of Ceramic tiles is that it can be cut at the site while laying on
recommended that these tiles be used indoors and not outdoors as they cannot
resist consistent downpour of water or tremendous foot traffic. They are for
medium range traffic. In high traffic areas, the glazing will give away, making
This is one of
the best inventions of modern day ceramics. These tiles have very low water
absorption- as low as less than 0.5% which is just miraculous. These tiles are
highly compact and dense. They are very much like natural stone and can be
polished similarly. Polishing gives a very good shine to the surface of these
tiles. Moreover, as it is like stone, on further polishing, the tile does not lose
its color. Through the thickness, it has the same color and grain structure.
They can be
used in high traffic areas as well. Homes, Dining rooms, drawing rooms, living
rooms, bed rooms etc. all can be floored with polished porcelain tiles.
They have very
high scratch resistance. They are also very good abrasion resistors. Hence they
can be used in commercial spaces like malls, shopping complexes, airports etc.
Does this mean
that porcelain tiles are the best for all purposes? No. To further elaborate let
us take a look at some of their drawbacks.
no water absorption, they are not recommended for walls. However, if you wish
to use them on walls, the adhesives have to be very good and a good supporting
element in needed in the structure.
is, it can be cut like stone, but you need a special cutting agent of high cost
to cut it and shape it to your purpose of application.
little holes on the surface. These do not absorb and take water downwards in
the tile body, but are not stain resistant. (Though
technological breakthroughs have been made to reduce staining in these tiles.)
also suffer from limited color availability. They are found mostly in natural
colors and stone type looks.
Most of these
are quite costly compared to the previous two that we have assessed.
Porcelain Tiles can further be divided into four categories on the basis of the
manufacturing technology used. These divisions are done to achieve better
[A]: Soluble Salts
As already mentioned,
one of the many limitations of polished porcelain tiles is the limited color
availability. SST employs a method to fight this challenge to a certain extent.
In SST, the
soluble salts are dissolved in water. The green tiles are then sprayed with
this water. This forces the water to penetrate within the depths of the tiles.
The printing is done with different mesh size for getting the required designs.
The tiles then pass through three water sprays. This makes the salt penetrate
to 2-3mm in the surface. On firing, the water evaporates and the salt remains
in the tile, giving it a design. This design is visible after polishing the
tile to about 1-1.5mm.
major limitation of this technology is that the availability of colors
available is limited to Brown, Yellow, Grey and Green. So, if we want a
replacement of Red Elegante the red
king of Italian marble, SST would fall short.
An innovation of SST: Multiple Pipe Technology
overcome the limitation of SST, multi pipe technology was invented. It uses 3
to 4 color powders to impart print. The powders are applied before pressing,
through the powder feeder. White and Ivory are directly fed on the feeder
grill. This mixture of powders is taken to the cavity of press to feed the
powder and then pressing is done on the tile. So these powders penetrate the
tile, forming delightful designs.
Multiple Pipe tiles is a practical solution. Technically, however, the powders
used in this process are quite costly, making the technology commercially
unviable in many countries. Moreover, homogenous colors were not found in the
produced tiles, which again put off buyers who wanted a large stock.
This is another innovative technology, developed to offset the color
print and design limitation of the polished porcelain tiles.
Here, the main body powder, which is Ivory and white, is mixed with
other colored powders, by use of screen vibrators. These powders are chosen
based on the required color of the tile. The tiles are then pressed. The colors
are already mixed with the body, so they form a homogenous mix within the
pressed green tile.
Once these pressed tiles are fired, we get unique black spots on the
tile, as if a lot of salt has been sprayed with a tinge of pepper. This is why
they are known as Salt and Pepper tiles.
The reverse can be done by having Black as the base powder for the body
and white being used sparsely at about 3-4%. This makes the tile totally black
with white spots.
Instead of Black, orange or other colors can also be used, thereby giving
a granular output.
These tiles are used in homes as well as commercial buildings. However,
they still have some color and design limitations.
Double Charge technology: The Presently accepted solution.
very popular technology that has replaced both the above technologies is the
DOUBLE CHARGE TECHNOLOGY or the DOUBLE LOADING TECHNOLOGY.
this technique 70% of the thickness is manufactured using low cost base powder
and clay. The 30% of the surface side of the tile contains base powder and
three different color powders.
charge or double load means, the cavity is loaded twice. First, only base
powder that is employed for 70% of the tile; then the other base powder and
three other color powders that form the surface. When these powders drop on
grill of the feeder, a uniform pattern is formed as all the three powders have
on the feeder grill, different types of designs are formed on the surface of
the tiles. Both these different charges are pressed to make a tile.
achieve a balanced combination of Surface patterns, Hardness and Stain
resistance, double charged tiles are upgraded from 1st generation to
3rd Generation. In the third generation, micronized powder is fed
inside the tiles, requiring more pigments and stains, eventually increasing the
cost. However, the final result is three dimensional, a perfect replacement for
double loading, the surface with the patter has a very low porosity giving it a
more glossy shine and very less water absorption, compared to SST. The Low
porosity enables it to be highly stain resistant.
seems that Double Charge or Double Loaded technology has proven to be a
commercially viable option. The manner in which many manufacturers are already
manufacturing these tiles and many more are planning to move ahead with the same
certainly portrays a very bright future for this technology.
as the production time and double pressing process add to the costs, there will
always be a big question mark over its long-term sustainability as a solution.
It is believed that till nothing else is there to beat double charge technology
given its cost/value proposition; the technology is here to stay. It seems the
TINA (There is no alternative) factor seems to be working in its favour right
we mentioned at the start of the article that humans are always thirsty for things
better and innovative, we are sure, next year in the same period, we may have
something else challenging the Double Loaded technology.
for now, it is widely accepted as a great solution for tile manufacturers.
Avenue has always been a step ahead in giving you information that yields
business advantage. Advertising has been one such sector (the others being retailing and Branding) that we have taken up as
have seen that sales and marketing in our area is not done as professionally
and effectively as it should be done. We have always presented articles that
have helped bridge the knowledge gap to make our players more professional and
issue is about timing of the advertisements and promotions during Diwali, the
and Marketing have one of the most critical advantageous positions that we miss
at times. This is TIMING. More often than not, great advertising campaigns,
when held unprofessionally, lead to missing the opportunities when the markets
such opportunity is the Festive season. In any country in the world, festive
seasons mark a sharp increase in sales of products. This sharp increase may be
pre season or during season, depending on the product lines.
far as ceramics go, we believe pre-season promotions and on season sales can
help a lot. However, this has to be planned and implemented in a very timely
manner. We will again emphasize, timing is everything. Get it right, and with
the same Ad budget, you can increase sales, brand image as well as customer
relationship by 20-25 %.
Diwali season is the right reason for people to open up their pockets for their
dream homes and other buying. In India, people plan the whole year to buy
during Diwali. The consumers are all geared up to make a spending.
culture has stayed in India since years and is not going to change in the
foreseeable future. We are a community who has adhered to this culture since
centuries and we are still proud of it.
festival of lights is welcomed by new homes, new cars, renovated rooms and many
other things new. The freshness is so contagious that people fall into the
bandwagon and buy in a smart frenzy. Kindly note, it is smart frenzy, not
In Management classes, it is often argued as
to when is it the best time to launch sales promotions? Many say it is during
slack seasons, many advocate peak season promotions? What then is the truth?
smart experienced marketer knows that it is during the seasons when the
consumer is ready to buy that you need to put offers and promotions. If you do
it in slack season, there is no NEED or DESIRE to buy. So whatever be the
attractive offer, basic reason for buying does not exist and so the whole promo
drive goes bust.
when the consumer is ready to buy, he is looking for smart deals. He has
budgeted for the same and is willing to spend to upgrade his life style. This
is when the promotions yield great returns on every penny spent and every
effort done on advertising and promotions. It has been already studied and established
that festive seasons surely are the leaders when it comes to readiness for
a times it is presumed that we can increase the prices and provide good
discounts. Well, the truth is the Indian consumer has now become very smart,
knowledgeable and informative compared to the past. He has access to Internet
that helps him get complete information of past present and future. So there’s
no use trying to cheat him. He is well informed and does not like being fooled.
his smartness can be used to a great advantage. Meet his smartness with the
smartness of the marketer.
mind boggling offers that attract him to at least study your offer before
finalizing. It is best to try and beat the competition here, but remember, even
you competitor is planning to beat you. So …What are the solutions here?
a professional who can help you plan your advertising and promotions. Tie-up
with an Advertising Agency that can plan the total set of advertising campaigns.
Also ensure that their creatives and media plan suit your budget. Take
advantage of their professional expertise to ensure that you get the best ROI
in the short term and a brand image in the long term.
are some Common Approaches from our Industry:
· Launch a New Sub Brand with unique product
· Provide a fresh POP material, to attract eye
· Announce a new brand if you have just started.
· Go for POP Posters to create a brand image.
· Develop a Dealer-Distributor Offer.
· Provide Seasonal Sales Training to the Retailers
· Organize a Dealer meet to motivate more volumes.
a good Intro letter for all of the above. However, this should not be a letter
but a Diwali Wish with an offer that cannot be refused. Also, design the creative
as a Card or a banner rather than a letter. Very little but effective text and
the above are just ideas and a broad vision of approach, you will need
professional help to devise attractive offers. This will always be the key. If
the offer is dull or beatable, remember, you are already out of the market, how
much advertising you do.
this, we end the first part of our Festive Season advertising series. Do wait
for the next piece of the same. We hope this issue helps you plan ahead for the
upcoming Diwali season.
get ready for lighting our Diwali with great business.